Psoriasis is a non contagious chronic autoimmune disease that causes skin inflammation and is linked to other autoimmune deficiencies such as psoriatic arthritis. It can be incredibly itchy and forms silver plaques on the skin,that can be embarrassing afflicted.
Reality TV stars have spoken out about how psoriasis can have a significantly negative impact on the quality of life normally the skin is divided into three layers the epidermis,dermis and hypodermis the hypodermis is made of fat and connective tissue that anchors. The skin to the underlying muscle just above the hypodermis is the dermis which contains nerves sweat glands lymph and blood vessels and just above the dermis is the epidermis.
The epidermis itself has multiple skin layers that are composed of developing keratinocytes which are named for the keratin protein, that they’re filled with keratin is a strong fibrous protein, that allows keratinous sites to protect themselves from getting destroyed when you rub your hands through the sand at the beach keratinocytes start their life.
At the lowest layer of the epidermis called the stratum basale or basal layer which is made of a single layer of small cuboidal two local um nurse stem cells, that continually divide and produce new kureta no sites these new kureta sites then migrate upwards forming the other layers of the epidermis as charata.
No sites in the stratum basale begin to mature and lose the ability to divide they migrate into the next layer called the stratum spinosum which is about eight to ten cell layers thick the stratum spinosum also has dendritic cells lurking around which are star-shaped immune cells constantly.
Patrolling for invading microbes as part of the body’s and be a defense system the next layer up is the stratum, granulosum which is three to five cell layers thick Kurama sites in this layer begin the process of keratinization which is the process where the kurata sites flatten out get rid of their intracellular.
Structures and die and in the process they create the epidermal skin barrier keratinization leads to the development of the stratum. Lucidum layer which is two to three cell layers thick of translucent dead kureta sites that have shed nuclei the stratum lucidum is only found in thick skin like on the palms and soles of the feet. Because those are the areas that need extra protection. The stratum lucidum is absent in thin skin which covers the rest of the body. The other layers a thinner, finally there’s a stratum corneum or the uppermost and thickest layer of the epidermis which is like a wall of 20 to 30 layers, as a new cretinous sites push up into the stratum corneum. Older dead cells are swapped off forming skin flakes or dandruff in this way the thickness of the epithelium remains constant with a regulated turnover of kureta sites. Normally there are microbes that live on the surface of the skin, but when there’s a tiny break in the skin or cut those microbes have the ability to enter into the skin layer. At point the body notices these foreign invaders in immune cells called dendritic cells.
Capture the foreign antigens break them down into little fragments that they then present to t-cells. There are two different types of T cells.
Cytotoxic T cells which directly kill infected cells and helper T cells that help to facilitate the overall immune response so if the dendritic cells present these fragments and the fragments are recognized by the T cell. Then the T cell releases cytokines, cytokines are small proteins used in cell signaling such as il-12, il-23 interferon gamma tumor necrosis factor or TNF and il-1 linked to chronic inflammation. This entire process of inflammation increases kureta site proliferation in the skin this also recruits other immune cells like neutrophils to the site of infection once the microbe is completely destroyed.
The immunological response slowly returns back to normal in psoriasis this immunologic response leads to excessive inflammation. The causes of psoriasis aren’t clear but there seems to be a genetic component, because the condition seems to run in families in addition. T
Neutrophils to the epidermis in the epidermis the neutrophils collect in the stratum corneum layer the inflammation also causes keratinocytes to proliferate excessively and mature abnormally the increased keratin asite proliferation thins out the stratum basale but thickens the other layers particularly.
The stratum corneum and stratum spinosum in fact as kurata site growth outpaces sloughing off the cells begin to pile up. These proliferating cretinous sites have a few maturation defects which are most obvious in the stratum corneum. First the charata sites produce more keratin than usual causing this layer to become even thicker second the corona sites retain a nuclei which is called para keratosis. Third the karate no sites do not adhere to each other properly causing breaks in the epidermis and giving the skin a scaly appearance if scales are picked off the blood vessels and the dermis can get injured causing localized spots of bleeding called an auth spit.
sign symptoms of psoriasis can vary and there are a few subtypes plaque psoriasis is the most common it appears as flattened areas of epidermal elevation that are inflamed in red or salmon colored from the underlying dilated blood vessels.
They’re topped with white silvery scales plaques are typically itchy and found on the scalp , in tensor regions like the elbows groin lower back and knees gutted psoriasis appears as small red individual spots on the trunk and limbs this subset usually starts in childhood and is sometimes triggered by an infection like strep throat, inverse psoriasis appears as smooth and shiny red lesions that lack scales. Typically form within skin folds like in the genital region under arms or under the breasts.
Pustular psoriasis appears as areas of red skin with small white elevations of cloudy puss formed from dead immune cells. They are usually tender and form on the hands and feet. An aerobic psoriasis appears as fire red scales that can cover any large area of the skin.
They are often extremely itchy, painful and fall off in large sheets cirrhotic Arthritis manifests as inflammation in the joints.
Nail pitting shallow or deep holes in the nails may appear in any subset the diagnosis is typically based on the distribution of the skin damage and a tissue biopsy can be done to confirm. The diagnosis by looking for classic changes in the epidermal layers.
Treatment for psoriasis can include moisturizers and emollients to help queer cirrhotic plaques and minimize itchiness or may require topical or systemic immuno suppressive therapies to dampen the immune response.
UV photo therapy can also be an option to induce DNA damage in the karateka sites and halt their proliferation new research has been targeting stress management dietary intervention and other immunotherapies to decrease whole body inflammation for some individuals there can be significant feelings of depression or anxiety. Especially when there are areas of skin affected by severe psoriasis psychological counseling can help sufferers cope with their condition, in fact there’s a field called psycho dermatology which utilizes strategies like anti-anxiety medications biofeedback allergy and immune function testing as well as cognitive behavioral therapy.
Okay so to recap psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that leads to chronic changes in the epidermis due to over stimulation of immune cells and excessive proliferation of karateka sites. That don’t mature correctly psoriasis most commonly causes silvery scaling of the skin and itchiness the diagnosis can be made visually or with a tissue biopsy there are various oral and topical treatments available as well as new areas of lifestyle and dietary intervention and psycho dermatology which addresses the relationship between emotions and physical changes in the skin.
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